education theories and theorists , this small page represent a place to work with the references that will help to structure your memories in academic facts

http://www.teachersgarden.com/professionalresources/learningtheorists.html

 

Outline of Educational Learning Theories and Theorists

Theorist Theory Description
Ausubel Subsumption Theory Mechanism by which new material presented in academic settings (lectures) can be integrated into existing mental structures. For subsumption to occur, the presentation of new knowledge should be preceded by “advance organizers.”
Bandura Observational Learning Theory Behavior can be learned through observation of others.
Bruner Constructivist Theory Individuals actively construct knowledge by comparing new ideas or concepts with their current knowledge (schema or mental models).
Comenius Pansophism
(universal knowledge)
The idea that learning, emotional, and spiritual growth are interwoven. Proposed teaching through stimulation of the senses, not merely through memorization. Considered the “Father of Modern Education.”
Dewey Learning by Doing Learning occurs through experience.
Erikson Socioemotional Development Erikson’s “Eight Stages of Man” describes a series of crises individuals pass through at different ages. The stages begin with “trust versus mistrust” in infancy and continue through a series of paired outcomes for each age through older adulthood.
Festinger Cognitive Dissonance Inconsistencies between behaviors and beliefs motivate people to change. One basis for constructivism.
Freud Levels of Consciousness The mind operates at different levels: conscious versus unconscious. He further subdivided the mind into the id (primitive motivations), ego (logical portion of the mind which acts to satisfy the id – when possible), and the super-ego (the conscience).
Gagne Conditions of Learning For different kids of learning (motor skills, verbal skills) different conditions are needed, so different strategies should be used.
Gardner Multiple Intelligences Each individual possesses seven distinct and measurable forms of intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, body-kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal, and interpersonal.
Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development
Pre-Conventional – based on self-centered interests
Conventional – based on conformity to local expectations
Post-Conventional – based on higher principles
Locke Tabula Rasa The idea that individuals are “blank slates” on which teachers could “write” knowledge. A forerunner of behaviorism.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Humans naturally strive to satisfy needs. The five levels of needs, from lowest to highest, are:

physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization.

Lower level needs must be satisfied before the individual can move on to satisfy higher level needs.

Miller Information Processing Theory Short term memory can only hold 5-9 “chunks” of information at a time. A chunk can be any meaningful idea like a word, an identifiable image, or a digit.
Pavlov Classical Conditioning
(Behaviorism)
The association of new responses with existing stimulus-response pairs. Classic example is pairing the ringing of a bell with presentation of food to dogs. After repeated pairing, the dogs will salivate upon hearing the bell (even if food is not presented). Original stimulus (S) response (R) pair is food — salivate. New S-R pair is bell — salivate.
Piaget Genetic Epistemology Developmental stages of child development:
0-2 years: “sensorimotor” – motor development
3-7 years: “preoperation” – intuitive
8-11 years: “concrete operational” – logical, but non-abstract
12-15 years: “formal operations” – abstract thinking
Rogers Experiential Learning Two types of knowledge: academic and experiential. Unlike academic knowledge, experiential knowledge is acquired to meet the needs of the learner, usually to complete an important, real-life task. Example: Learning to drive a car.
Skinner Operant Conditioning
(Behaviorism)
Learning is the result of changes in behavior. As stimulus-response cycles are reinforced, individuals are “conditioned” to respond. Distinguished from Connectionism because individuals can initiate responses, not merely respond to stimuli.
Thorndike Connectionism
(Behaviorism)
Learners form associations or connections between a stimulus and a response. Through trial and error, rewarded responses would be strengthened.
Vygotsky Social Development Theory and ZPD Social interaction is critical for cognitive development. Related to this is the idea of a “Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).” Some skills, an individual can perform independently. Other skills can be performed if the individual has assistance. Skills that can be performed with assistance are said to be within an individual’s ZPD. The ZPD is the theoretical basis for scaffolding.
Watson Behaviorism Proposed that most human learning and behavior was controlled by experience (not genetically pre-determined). Believed the only behaviors that should be studied are the “observable” ones.
Wertheimer Gestalt Theory Some ideas can only be understood as part of a “bigger picture” Important in problem-solving.
 
 

Learning Theories

Learning Theorists

 
Theorist
Key Issues & Links to Resources
Behaviorism — Learning occurs when new behavior or changes in behavior are acquired as a result of an individual’s response to antecedent and consequent stimuli. The external environment shapes an individual’s behavior by presenting antecedent stimuli that prompts a behavior, and consequent stimuli that reinforces (strengthens) the behavior. 

B.F. Skinner 
1904 —1990

 

“The major problems of the world today can be solved only if we improve our understanding of human behavior.” 
About Behaviorism (1974)

“Many instructional arrangements seem ‘contrived,’ but there is nothing wrong with that. It is the teacher’s function to contrive conditions under which students learn. It has always been 
the task of formal education to set up behavior which would prove useful or enjoyable later in a student’s life.”

 The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis(1938)

 Skinner, B. F. (1948). ‘Superstition’ in the pigeon.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 168-172.

 Walden Two (1948)

 Science & Human Behavior (1953)

 Verbal Behavior (1957)

  The Technology of Teaching (1968)

 Beyond Freedom & Dignity (1971)

 About Behaviorism (1974)

 http://www.bfskinner.org/
  The Origins of Cognitive Thought (Analysis of Behavior) 

Robert Mager

“The danger in leaping from apparent problem to apparent solution is that large amounts of time and money can be spent in throwing training at a problem that training cannot solve. You need to dig a little deeper… This is why a procedure like performance analysis is important to those who actually want to solve problems  rather than just talk about them. “
Analyzing Performance Problems (1984)

 Preparing Instructional Objectives, 2nd Ed. (1975)

 Measuring Instructional Results, 3rd Ed (1997)

 Analyzing Performance Problems (w Peter Pipe), 2nd Ed (1984)  Performance Analysis Checklist & Flowchart

 Goal Analysis, 2nd Ed (1984)

 What Every Manager Should Know About Training, 2nd Ed (1999)

 Making Instruction Work, 2nd Ed (1997)

   http://www.cepworldwide.com/Bios/mager.htm
  Criterion Referenced Instruction 
  “How to Write Great Learning Objectives” by Kevin Kruse

Fred Keller
1899 — 1996

“(1) The go-at-your-own pace feature, which permits a student to move through the course at a speed commensurate with his ability and other demands of his time. 
(2) The unit-perfection requirement for advance, which lets the student go ahead to new material only after demonstrating mastery of that which preceded.
(3) The use of lectures and demonstrations as vehicles of motivation, rather than sources of critical information. 
(4) The related stress upon the written word in teacher-student communication; and finally: 
(5) The use of proctors, which permits repeated testing, immediate scoring, almost unavoidable tutoring, and a marked enhancement of the personal-social aspect of the educational process”. (Keller, 1968)

Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)

 Principles of Psychology (1950) with W.N. Schoenfeld

F S Keller (1968), ‘Goodbye Teacher’, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,   1, 79-87

 Keller, F. S. (1973). The Definition of Psychology (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.

Keller, F. S. (1974a). “The basic system”. In F. S. Keller & J. G. Sherman (Eds.), The Keller handbook (pp. 14-23). Philippines: W. A. Benjamin.

Keller, F. S. (1974b). “PSI is not for everyone”. In F. S. Keller & J. G. Sherman (Eds.), The Keller handbook (pp. 73-76). Philippines: W. A. Benjamin.

 Keller, F. S. (1982). Pedagogue’s progress. Lawrence, KA: TRI Publications.

  http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/387/OpenModules/Keller/

Cognitivism — Learning is a change in knowledge stored in memory. Information processing is governed by an internal process — rather than external circumstance as emphasized by behaviorism. The process includes selecting information (attention), translating information (encoding), and recalling that information when appropriate (retrieval). 

Robert Gagné
1916 — 2002

“There is a scientific discipline of instruction and a technology of instructional design founded on this science.”

“There are known instructional strategies. The acquisition of different types of knowledge and skill require different conditions for learning.” (Gagné, 1985)

Conditions of Learning

“Military training and principles of learning”. (1962) American Psychologist, 17, 263-276

 The Conditions of Learning and the Theory of Instruction , 4th Ed, (1965, 1985)

 Principles of Instructional Design, with L.J. Briggs & W. Wagner , 4th Ed. (1974, 1992)

The Nine Events of Instruction
 http://tip.psychology.org/gagne.html
http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Gagne.htm

M. David Merrill

“The premise is that first principles for instruction do exist and that one or more of these first principles can be found in most instructional design theories and models. This premise also assumes that these design principles apply regardless of the instructional program or practices prescribed by a given theory or model. If this premise is true, research will demonstrate that when a given instructional program or practice violates or fails to implement one or more these first principles, there will be a decrement in learning and performance. Our survey of instructional products also demonstrates that many instructional programs fail to effectively incorporate all of these principles.” (Merrill, 2001) 

 Teaching Concepts: An instructional design guide (1977). Educational Technology Publications

 Instructional Design Theory (1994), Educational Technology Publications

 “Instructional Strategies that Teach” (1997). CBT Solutions Nov/Dec 1-11.

  “Components of Instruction” (2000), in press

 “Knowledge Objects and Mental Models (2000), In D.A. Wiley (ED. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. Washington D.C.: Assoc for Educational Communications and Technology.

 “First Principles of Instruction” (2001)

 “A Pebble in the Pond: Model for Instructional Design“, August 2002, Performance Improvement, Volume 41, Number 7, pages 39-44.

 http://tip.psychology.org/merrill.html
 http://cito.byuh.edu/merrill/
 http://www.id2.usu.edu/5Star/Index.htm
 http://www.id2.usu.edu/

Ruth Clark

“Learning requires an active processing of lesson content in such a way that it becomes integrated with existing knowledge in memory. Instructional methods are techniques that support the psychological processes that mediate the transformation of lesson content into internal knowledge and skills. The use of methods that support the learner’s cognitive process and avoidance of methods that disrupt learning processes are what make lessons effective or ineffective. Some examples of popular instructional methods are examples, analogies, practice exercises, and graphics.”Building Expertise (2003)

 Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load (2006) with Frank Nguyen and John Sweller

 Graphics for Learning: Proven Guidelines for Planning, Designing, and Evaluating Visuals in Training Materials (2004) with Chopeta Lyons

  E-Learning and the Science of Instruction (2003) with Richard Mayer

 Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training & Performance Improvement , 2nd Ed (1998, 2003) Performance Improvement: ISPI

 “Four Architectures of Instruction” (2001), Performance Improvement 39 (10: 31-37).

 “The New ISD: Applying Cognitive Strategy to Instructional Design” (2002) www.ispi.org, August 2002

 http://www.clarktraining.com/

Gloria Gery

“An electronic performance support system is an integrated electronic environment which is available to and easily accessed by each employee and is structured to provide immediate, individualized online access to the full range of information, software, guidance, advice and assistance, data, images, tools, and assessment and monitoring systems to permit him or her to perform his or her job with a minimum of support and intervention by others.”

Gery, G. (1989). “The Quest for Electronic Performance Support.” In CBT Directions, July 1989, Weingarten Publications, Boston.

Gery, G. (1990a). “A New Vision of Training.” In FYI: The Quarterly Journal on Information Technology. Data Base Architects, Inc., Alameda, CA.

Gery, G. (1990b). “Performance Support Systems: Concepts and Development Issues.” Handout for the 8th Annual Computer-Based Training Conference and Exposition. Gery Associates, Inc., Tolland, MA

 Electronic Performance Support Systems. (1991) Weingarten Publications, Boston.

 http://www.gloriagery.com/ (articles archive) 
  http://www.workflowinstitute.com/

Charles Reigeluth

“When we look at the ways society is changing as we evolve deeper into the information age, we can see definite trends in the work place, the family, and decision-making systems. From those changes, we can identify new features that an information-age educational system should have to meet the needs of society. Educators should take this kind of needs-based, system-design approach to improving education. Without such an approach, we will almost certainly be condemned to to a system that does not meet society’s needs.”

 Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current Status. (1983)

 Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory (2nd ed.). (1999)

Reigeluth, C. M. & Squire, K. D. (1998) “Emerging Work in the New Paradigm of Instructional Theory”. Educational Technology, July.

  Elaboration Theory
  http://tip.psychology.org/reigelut.html
  Indiana University Bloomington: Faculty Profile 
  Instructional Design Theories Home Page

Benjamin Bloom
1913 — 1999

“Talent is not something to be found in the few; it is to be developed in the many.”

“Education must be increasingly concerned about the fullest development of all children and youth, and it will be the responsibility of the schools to seek learning conditions which will enable each individual to reach the highest level of learning possible.”

 Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain. (1956)

B S Bloom (1968/81), ‘Learning For Mastery’, The Evaluation Comment, 1(2), in B S Bloom (Ed) All Our Children Learning, 
McGraw-Hill

  http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html
 “Bloom’s Taxonomy’s Model Questions & Key Words” 
  http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskills/dalton.htm 

Constructivism — Learning is the process where individuals construct new ideas or concepts (schema) based on prior knowledge and/or experience. Individuals construct knowledge by working to solve realistic problems, usually in collaboration with others. This theory builds upon cognitivism, but emphasizes the importance of social interaction, discovery, and the personal construction of meaning from experience.

Jerome Bruner

“The language of education, if it is to be an invitation to reflection and culture creating, cannot be the so-called uncontaminated language of fact and ‘objectivity’. It must express stance and must invite counter-stance, and in the process leave place for reflection, for meta-cognition. It is this that permits one to reach higher ground, this process of objectifying in language or image what one has thought and then turning around and re-considering it”

 Toward a Theory of Instruction (1966)

 Acts of Meaning (1990)

 The Culture of Education (1996)

  Discovery Learning
  http://www.my-ecoach.com/idtimeline/theory/bruner.html
  http://tip.psychology.org/bruner.html

Jean Piaget
1886 — 1980

“The principle goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things, not simply of repeating what other generations have done — men who are creative, inventive and discoverers”

 The Child’s Conception of the World (1929)

 The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932)

 The Construction of Reality in the Child (1954)

 The Science of Education & the Psychology of the Child(1970)

   Genetic Epistemology
  http://tip.psychology.org/piaget.html
  http://www.piaget.org/

John Dewey
1859 — 1952

“Education is a social process. Education is growth. Education is, not a preparation for life; education is life itself.”

“The self is not something ready-made, but something in continuous formation through choice of action.”

“Too rarely is the individual teacher so free from the dictation of authoritative supervisor, textbook on methods, prescribed course of study, etc., that he can let his mind come to close quarters with the pupil’s mind and the subject matter.”

 Moral Principles in Education (1909)

 Moral Judgment and Knowledge (1932)

 How We Think (1933)

 Experience and Education (1938)

 Democracy and Education (1942)

  Center for Dewey Studies: SIU
  http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/d/dewey.htm

Carl Rogers 
1902 — 1987

 

” Experience is, for me, the highest authority. The touchstone of validity is my own experience. No other person’s ideas, and none of my own ideas, are as authoritative as my experience. It is to experience that I must return again and again, to discover a closer approximation to truth as it is in the process of becoming in me.
 
Neither the Bible nor the prophets — neither Freud nor research –neither the revelations of God nor man — can take precedence over my own direct experience.
 
My experience is not authoritative because it is infallible. It is the basis of authority because it can always be checked in new primary ways. In this way its frequent error or fallibility is always open to correction.”  On Becoming a Person

 Counseling and Psychotherapy (1942)

 Client-Center Therapy (1951)

 On Becoming a Person (1961)

 Freedom to Learn (1969), 3rd Ed with H.J. Freiberg (1993)

 Encounter Groups (1970)

 A Way of Being (1980)

  Taking a Closer Look at Carl Rogers
  Psi Cafe: Carl Rogers — Reference Links
  Where No Psychologist Went Before 

Ken Wilber

“I have one major rule: everybody is right. More specifically, everybody — including me — has some important pieces of the truth, and all of those pieces need to be honored, cherished, and included in a more gracious, spacious, and compassionate embrace.” Collected Works of Ken Wilber , vol. VIII, Introduction, p. 49

 The Holographic Paradigm (1982)

 Quantum Questions (1984)

 Integral Psychology (2000)

 A Theory of Everything (2000)

  KenWilber.com
  The Integral Institute
   Ken Wilber Online: Shambala Publications
   Wikipedia: Ken Wilber 

Lev Vygotsky
1896 — 1934

“The structure of language one habitually uses influences the way he perceives his environment…”  ” the speech structures mastered by the child become the basic structures of his thinking.”

“In the process of historical development social man changes the ways and means of his behavior, transforms the natural instincts and functions, elaborates and creates new forms of behavior.”

“Learning is more than the acquisition of the ability to think; it is the acquisition of many specialized abilities for thinking about a variety of things.”

 Thought and Language (1962)

 Mind in Society (1978)

  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lev_Vygotsky
   Lev Vygotsky Archive
    PsiCafe: Vygotsky
  http://tip.psychology.org/vygotsky.html
  http://mathforum.org/mathed/vygotsky.html
  “Vygotsky & Language Acquisition” by Ricardo Schutz 

Carl Jung 
1875 — 1961

“Just as the body bears the traces of its phylogenic development, so also does the human mind.” 
“General Aspects of Dream Psychology”, CW Vol 8: 475

“There is no light without shadow and no psychic wholeness without imperfection.” Psychological Reflections, 281

“An understanding heart is everything in a teacher, and cannot be esteemed highly enough. One looks back with appreciation to the brilliant teachers, but with gratitude to those who touched our human feeling. The curriculum is so much necessary raw material, but warmth is the vital element for the growing plant and for the soul of the child.”

“Your vision will become clear only when you look into your heart… Who looks outside, dreams. Who looks inside, awakens.”

 Psychology of the Unconscious (1912)

 Psychology of Types (1923)

 Modern Man in Search of Soul (1933)

 “Analytical Psychology & Education” (1946), CW Vol 17: 63

 The Undiscovered Self (1959)

 Man and His Symbols (1964)

 The Collected Works in 20 Vols

  The Psi Cafe: Carl Jung
 Cracking the 4-Letter Type Code: Jung’s Cognitive
      Processes (Myers-Briggs Typology) 

 
 
 
 

Miscellaneous Sites

Anchored Instruction

Dual Coding Theory

John Dewey

Behaviorism

Contiguity Theory

Information Processing Theory

Situated Learning

Cognitive Dissonance

Aptitude-Treatment Interaction

Subsumtion Theory

  • Advance Organizers - Montclair State Univesity
  • David Ausubel - by Barbara Bowen
  • Subsumption Theory - Ausubel’s theory is concerned with how individuals learn large amounts of meaningful material from verbal/textual presentations in a school setting (in contrast to theories developed in the context of laboratory  experiments).

Social Judgment Theory

Cooperative Learning

 

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